Apraxia: Is a neurologic disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned movements on command, even though the command is understood and there is a willingness to perform the movement. Both the desire and the capacity to move are present, but the person cannot execute the act. (Info given by Web MD)
Types of Apraxia:
Limb Apraxia: Also referred to as dyspraxia. Is outlined as the inability to make precise movements with fingers, arms or legs on command.
Non-Verbal Oral Apraxia: Is referred as the inability to coordinate and carry out oral/facial movements on command.
Verbal Apraxia: Is referred to the inability to coordinate and sequence sounds necessary for speech on command.
(Info given by VYNE EDUCATION Suspected Apraxia and Early Intervention Seminar or www.vyne.com)
Global Apraxia: Is when an individual experiences Limb, Non-Verbal Oral, and Verbal Apraxia all at the same time.
Sensory Processing Disorder: is a condition in which the brain has trouble receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. Formerly referred to as sensory integration dysfunction, it is not currently recognized as a distinct medical diagnosis. (Info given by Web MD)
Complex Motor Stereotypy:
Primary Motor Stereotypies also referred to as stereotypic movement disorder, are rhythmic, repetitive, fixed predictable, purposeful, but purposeless movements that occur in a child who is otherwise developing normally. Examples of primary motor stereotypes are flapping and waving of the arms, hand flapping, head nodding and rocking back and forth. (Info by hopkinsmedicine.org)
Secondary Motor Stereotypies refers to the presence of an additional diagnosis with behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms, including autistic spectrum disorder, mental retardation, sensory deprivation, Rett syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, drug induced conditions, tumor, infection, or psychiatric conditions. (Info given by Singer, H.S. (2009, 06). Motor Stereotypies. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 16(2), 77-81. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2009.03.008)
There are many ideas, perspectives, debates, and thoughts about the definitions of Dyspraxia and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Some individuals believe they are one in the same, while others believe they are different. The one major difference between Dyspraxia and DCD is that DCD is the formal term professionals use to describe children with certain developmental challenges impacting fine and gross motor skills. DCD is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM5) as code 315.4. Dyspraxia, on the other hand, is not a formal diagnosis. However, many international organizations, including the Dyspraxia Foundation UK, describe Dyspraxia as a type of DCD. The World Health Organization (WHO) codes Dyspraxia and DCD together under the International Classification of Diseases for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics, 11th Revision, v2022-02 (ICD-11) as 6A04 Developmental motor coordination disorder.
Dyspraxia is a neurological disorder throughout the brain that results in life-long impaired motor, memory, judgment, processing, and other cognitive skills. Each individual living with Dyspraxia has different abilities and weaknesses as Dyspraxia often comes with a variety of co-occurring conditions. The most common of these is Developmental Coordination Disorder (also known as DCD), a motor-planning-based disorder that impacts fine and gross motor development. For insurance reasons, the World Health Organization code for DCD and Dyspraxia together and the DSM code for DCD alone.
(Information from http://www.dyspraxiausa.org/)
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia, is a common disorder affecting fine and/or gross motor coordination in children and adults. DCD is formally recognized by international organizations including the World Health Organization. DCD is distinct from other motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke, and occurs across the range of intellectual abilities. Individuals may vary in how their difficulties present: these may change over time depending on environmental demands and life experiences, and will persist into adulthood. (Information from https://dyspraxiafoundation.org.uk/about-dyspraxia/dyspraxia-glance/)
Another great resource:
Dr. Emma Tremaine aka Dr. Dyspraxia's Resource Bank
Types of Dyspraxia:
Verbal Dyspraxia: Oro-motor involvement.
Constructional Dyspraxia: this has to do with spatial relationships.
Ideation Dyspraxia: Affects the ability to perform coordinated movements in sequence.
Ideomotor Dyspraxia: Affects organizing single-step tasks.
Global Dyspraxia: Is when an individual experiences verbal, constructional, ideation, and ideomotor Dyspraxia all at the same time.
(Information from Ideomotor Dyspraxia and Ideational Dyspraxia – Scottish Acquired Brain Injury Network – e-learning; www.readandspell.com/us/what-is-dyspraxia; Verbal Dyspraxia: What Are the Symptoms of Speech Dyspraxia? (exceptionalindividuals.com) )
Terms used to describe a processing disorder may vary based on the perspective of the professional describing the problem. Terms include, but are not limited to, "auditory processing disorder," "(central) auditory processing disorder," "language processing disorder," and "auditory information processing disorder."
ASHA uses the term Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) to refer to deficits in the neural processing of auditory information in the CANS not due to higher order language or cognition, as demonstrated by poor performance in one or more of the skills listed above (ASHA, 2005). Although sometimes difficult, careful differential diagnosis is important to the process of treatment planning.
Professionals have adopted varying perspectives on the interpretation of CAPD (Cacace & McFarland, 2008; DeBonis & Moncrieff, 2008; De Wit et al., 2016; Friberg & McNamara, 2010; Jerger, 1998; McFarland & Cacace, 2006; Rees, 1973, 1981). Divergent perspectives among professionals reflect ongoing debate regarding how to define, assess, and treat auditory processing disorder.
Different viewpoints exist for a number of reasons, including the heterogeneity of symptoms, variations in the definition, the lack of a reference standard for diagnosis, the relationship between auditory perceptual deficits and language disorders, and the particular treatment approach(es) that follow from the diagnosis of CAPD (Kamhi, 2011; Moore, Rosen, Bamiou, Campbell, & Sirimanna, 2013; Vermiglio, 2014). Additional information providing an historical perspective on auditory processing disorder is available (DeBonis & Moncrieff, 2008; Richard, 2011).
Because of the heterogeneity of skills involved in auditory processing, some suggest that CAPD should be diagnosed by the specific deficit (e.g., difficulty processing signals in noise; difficulties with auditory discrimination, temporal processing, or binaural processing), rather than broadly as a CAPD (Vermiglio, 2016). Not all diagnoses of a CAPD represent a limitation for the individual (Dillon, Cameron, Glyde, Wilson, & Tomlin, 2012) or a condition that must be treated (Vermiglio, 2016).
There is general agreement that auditory perceptual abilities influence language development—particularly the pre-literacy skills—and that it can be difficult to separate the influence of auditory and language skills with regard to academic demands (Richard, 2012, 2013; Watson & Kidd, 2008). The act of processing speech is very complex and involves the engagement of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms, often simultaneously (Medwetsky, 2011).
Richard's (2013) continuum of processing includes both auditory processing and language processing. This continuum involves the following types of processing:
Information provided by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: https://www.asha.org/PRPSpecificTopic.aspx?folderid=8589943561§ion=Causes